field horticulture
GRAFTING- By Fred Field

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 GRAFTING

Reasons for grafts to fail or succeed:

Time of year is critical as buds need some time to develop and then further time of chilling units.  Some fruit trees need more chilling units than others.  Cherries need a minimum of 700 hours of between 0-7oC chilling.

Two ways of grafting is by chip budding, just using the bud or grafting with buds on scion wood, which  will produce leaf and new woodstock.

The scion wood can only be grafted on the root stock that is compatible ie same family.

When grafting or chip budding keep knives and tools clean.After each graft dip knife into a mixture of formalin or other sterilising formula, so pathogenic micro organisms are not transmitted from stock to stock.

Environmental temperature for grafting  is between 16-18oC.

All Grafts and Chip Buds need to be sealed with tape that shrinks onto the cut areas, it is important that after say 6 months  the tape breaks down and disintegrates -  exposure to air will callus the union and heal finally.

Sometimes buds that are chip budded can sit for several months until the right conditions, then the rootstock becomes active,  such as, when the rootstock becomes active.
Roots do not activate until temperature reaches 12oC as the temperature rises so does the root activity.

Different types of grafting  are as follows:

Incarching, Bridging, Veneer, Apicol, Side, Bech, Spliced, Tongued Approcach, Rind, Inlay, Cleft, Bottle, Sheild, Patch Budding, Flute Budding, Goose Buddding, Pronged, Whip and Tongue, Saddle, Wedge, Gap, Nurse & Root.

To suceed at most of these one needs speed and practice.  Whatever you intend to propogate research the individual plant as to its needs after grafting as the plant could be still a juvenile  and will need careful attention before becoming mature and can look after itself.

                         Copyright Fred Field/ Field Horticulture